order of times

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Principle of Least Action III — History

The spectacle of the universe becomes so much the grander, so much more beautiful, the worthier of its Author, when one knows that a small number of laws, most wisely established, suffice for all movements. Pierre Louis Maupertuis (1744) Among the more or less general laws, the discovery of which characterize the development of physical science during the last century, the principle of Least Action is at present certainly one which, by its form and comprehensiveness, may be said to have approached most closely to the ideal aim of theoretical inquiry. Its significance, properly understood, extends, not only to mechanical processes, but also to thermal and electrodynamic problems. In all the branches of science to which it applies, it gives, not only an explanation of certain characteristics of phenomena at present encountered, but [...]

Metaphysics of Time in the Eyes of Philosophy and Kabbalah

A-Series and B-Series as Zman and Seder HaZmanim McTaggart’s series A and series B are two conceptual frameworks proposed by the philosopher J.M.E. McTaggart[1] to analyze the nature of time and its relationship to temporal properties such as past, present, and future. J. M. E. McTaggart, by Walter Stoneman, 1917 In McTaggart’s series A, also known as the “A-series” or the “temporal series,” time is understood in terms of the temporal properties of past, present, and future. The A-series categorizes events based on their temporal relations, such as past, present, and future, which are considered essential aspects of events. The A-series views time as a succession of moments where events move from the future, through the present, and into the past. It emphasizes the dynamic and changing nature of time, with events shifting their [...]

By |2023-07-24T10:13:23-04:00July 21st, 2023|Time, Uncategorized|1 Comment

Sukkot — Bringing Time into Space

Jews have a very strange custom to take four species (Heb. arba’a minim)—a fruit of a citron tree (etrog), a branch of a date palm (lulav), boughs from the myrtle tree (chadassim), and branches of the willow tree (aravot)—and wave them in all six directions (na’anuim) while holding the species together. The precise movements involve bringing the bunch to one’s heart, then moving them to and fro in all six directions, three in each direction, every time returning the bunch to the heart. A strange sight indeed… what could it possibly mean? I’ve written before that Sukkot has to do with bringing holiness into time and space. The seven days of dwelling in the sukkah-booth (a.k.a. tabernacle) is related to the most important cycle of time – 7: there are seven days in a week, seven years in a Sabbatical cycle (shemita), seven [...]

By |2023-10-04T19:50:48-04:00October 18th, 2019|Sefirot, Space, Sukkot, Sukkot, Time, Uncategorized|3 Comments

On the Nature of Time and the Age of the Universe

Presented at the International Torah and Science Conference in Miami International University on December 18, 2005 Alexander Poltorak   Introduction. This is the third in a series of articles, in which I attempt to sketch various approaches to reconciling a cosmological age of the universe currently estimated at 13.75 billion years with the Jewish tradition setting this age at less than six thousand years (5770 as of the day of this writing, to be exact). The first article [1] tackled this problem from the point of view of Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics suggesting that there were two distinct forms of existence—physical and proto-physical—and that the first conscious observers, Adam and Eve, collapsed the universal wavefunction, bringing the world from amorphous proto-physical existence into tangible physical existence.  This approach leads to two distinct [...]




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